Glossary 2018-02-17T14:24:31+00:00

Health Safety & Environmental Terminology Glossary










  • ACGIH – American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists;
  • ACS – Anti Collision System;
  • Accident –  An undesired event which results in: harm to people (injury or occupational illness) and/or damage to the environment and/or losses to assets such as information, process, and reputation;
  • Accident report – A written summary describing the accident / incident, presenting an analysis of causes and suggestions for remedial action, and documenting actions taken as preventive or control measures;
  • Accident / incident analysis – Study of accident / incident experience through compilation of related facts and information about the nature of injuries and/or damage, and the causal factors. The purpose is to identify trends and problem areas and to identify the critical safety problems as a basis for program objectives and activities.
  • Accident / incident investigation – A systematic search for factual information on the extent and nature of a specific loss or near-miss, the related events, the substandard practices and conditions which influenced the events, the basic or roots causes, and the management actions needed to prevent or control future occurrences.
  • AED –  Automated External Defibrillator;
  • AI-PS – Asset Integrity Process Safety.
  • ALARP – As Low As Reasonably Possible;
  • ANSI – American National Standards Institute;
  • Aspects Environmental – Element of an organization’s activities or products or services that can interact with the environment;
  • Assessment – A comprehensive, systematic assessment of performance to established and accepted criteria. A systematic and independent examination to determine whether HSE activities and related results comply with planned arrangement.
  • Asset Integrity – See Technical Integrity.
  • Assumption – The rationale on which normative behaviors and beliefs are based;
  • Assurance – A positive declaration intended to give confidence;
  • Audit – See Assessment;
  • Authority – The capacity to give commands which are accepted as legitimate by others;


  • BBS – Behavioural Based Safety, e.g. STOP Card system
  • Body Heat Balance – Steady-state equilibrium between body heat production and heat loss to the environment.
  • Banding – A process which details the contractor selection process for High and Medium Risk services. It is a process that presents a consistent and standardized approach to HSE evaluation of contractors. The overriding objective is to reduce contractor incidents and to prioritize doing business with contractors who have a good HSE capability and performance.
  • Basic causes – The job and personal factors, such as inadequate engineering, lack of knowledge or skill, etc., from which substandard acts and/or substandard conditions originate. Basic causes may also be referred to as underlying, root or real causes, systems defects or contributing causes.
  • BBS – Behavioural Based Safety. A system or program to identify, evaluate, control, and monitor behaviors in an organization in order to change and improve ‘safe’ behaviors and/or to reduce ‘at-risk’ behaviors.
  • Behavioral observation – The process of observing how individuals conduct themselves with reference to rules and practices, in order to reinforce and improve desired standards of behavior.
  • Benchmarking – Predetermined standard(s) against which research or assessments are measured.
  • Budget – A firm’s predetermined financial plan, expressed in quantitative or financial terms, for a given future period.
  • Business Assurance Letter – The Business Assurance Letter is a corporate exercise which involves all the functional departments. The intent is to assure, with or without qualifications, that the current implementation status and integrity of the HSE-MS meets suitability, adequacy, and effectiveness requirements.
  • Business continuity planning – Arrangements for restoring business activities as soon as possible following an emergency to minimize loss to business and impact on stakeholders.
  • Business controls – Structured means used to provide reasonable assurance that business objectives are properly set and are likely to be met with little risk of unacceptable deviation.


  • CEPI – Composite Environmental Performance Indicator.
  • CPR – Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation;
  • Coaching – The day-by-day actions you take to help people perform as well as possible.
  • Code of Practice (CP – PDO) – A high level document that specifies the overall approach and procedure for performing a business process / activity, and which states the minimum requirements expected from employees, contractors, and/or other relevant stakeholders.
  • Codes – Rules and standards which have been adopted, by a governmental agency or professional regulatory body, as mandatory regulations having the force and effect of law.
  • Commitment, management – Visible participation of the (senior) management of their organization’s improvement efforts. Their participation may include establishing and serving on an HSE committee, establishing HSE policies and goals, deploying goals to lower levels of the organization, providing the resources and training that the lower levels need to achieve the goals, participating in quality improvement teams, and reviewing progress organization-wide.
  • Competence – The ability, in terms of skill, knowledge, and awareness to perform a role within specified standards. Competence is developed over time from among a combination of education, training, and/or experience.
  • Complete task observation – An observation, planned in advance, of the complete task, using the established task procedure and/or the most recent task analysis worksheet as references, and recording the results on a specific form.
  • Contingency measures – Measures that could be taken if an event occurs, in order to minimize its consequence.
  • Control – The process of ensuring that activities are carried out as intended. Control involves monitoring aspects of performance, making commendations and taking corrective actions where necessary.
  • Controls – Controls include preventive measures (reducing the likelihood / probability), mitigative measures (reducing the number and severity of consequence) and recovery or recovery preparedness measures (reducing the chain of consequences arising from a top event). Controls are also called risk reduction measures, preventive measures, barriers, and/or mitigative measures.
  • Coordination – The process of combining the work of organization members and departments to achieve the desired end-product or goals of the organization.
  • Corporate Governance – Defining and implementing a system of rules, processes, procedures, and relationships to manage the organization and fulfill its legal, financial, and/or ethical obligations.
  • Corrective action – Any activity undertaken to address an incident or non-compliance, and to prevent its recurrence.
  • Crisis – An emergency where the situation has escalated to the point where there is actual or potential media interest which might have a negative impact on reputation at the corporate level and could threaten the survival of the business.
  • Critical controls – A control or contingency measure which is absent or ineffective would result in at least one risk becoming unacceptable.
  • Critical / vital few – A basic management principle which states that a small percentage of specific items, actions, or activities account for the majority of all accidents and costs. Often referred to as the Pareto Principle.
  • Critical equipment – Machinery, equipment, and/or materials that is likely to result in a major loss to people, property, process and/or environment when worn, damaged, abused, misused, improperly applied, etc. These critical few pieces of machinery, equipment, and/or materials which, when worn, damaged, abused, misused, or improperly applied, are more likely to result in a major loss.
  • Critical equipment list – A comprehensive list that includes all critical equipment, machinery, and/or materials at the location that have historically resulted in the majority of losses (including injury or illness) or have the potential to do so. The list should include a statement of the criteria used to identify their criticality.
  • Critical supplies inventory – Activity to identify, register, and evaluate critical spare parts or components.
  • Critical task – A specific element of work which historically has produced and/or which, when not properly performed, may produce major loss, either during or as a result of the task.
  • Culture – The customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial, religious, or social group. It encompasses the characteristic features of everyday existence shared by people in a place or time. It is the way the organization believes, thinks, and acts with respect to risk.


  • Days Lost – It represents, in the case of a reportable accident, either the number of days of unfitness for work as per Doctor’s certificate, or the number of days allocated in case of a permanent disability (partial or total), or death.
  • Downstream – The downstream part of Petroleum industry includes oil refineries, petrochemical plants, petroleum products distributors, retail outlets and natural gas distribution companies.
  • DCAF – Discipline Controls and Assurance Framework.
  • Design failure – A failure due to inadequate design of an item.
  • Directive, management – Specific instruction from management.
  • Disability – Any injury or illness, temporary or permanent, which prevents a person from carrying on his or her usual activity.
  • Disabling injury – A work injury which results in death, permanent total disability, permanent partial disability, temporary total disability, or restricted ability to perform normal work.
  • Document control – The operational techniques and activities to ensure the right and proper use of all documentation in the organization. Document control addresses: document layout, approval, issue, changes, modifications, distribution, and removal of obsolete documents.
  • Document distribution list – Comprehensive list mentioning document numbers, date of issue, revision number, document name, quantity issued, department of issue, department of destination, file storage place, retention, etc.
  • Dosimeter – A personal device used to monitor an individual’s exposure to an occupational health hazard, such as radiation, vibration, noise, etc.
  • Duty of Care – An obligation and concept that a sensible person / organization would apply or use in circumstances when acting towards the public, and/or other stakeholders. If the actions of a person or organization are not made with watchfulness, attention, caution, and prudence, their actions are considered negligent. The duty of care shall in particular monitor the working and living conditions of the workforce.


  • EIA – Environmental Impact Assessment.
  • EPA – US Environmental Protection Agency
  • EXP – Exposure hours. Total number of hours of employment for work, including overtime and training but excluding leave, sickness and other absences.
  • Effect – An adverse impact on people, the environment or PDO’s reputation; damage and/or loss of assets.
  • Emergency – A situation that poses an immediate threat to human life, major / serious damage to property / assets, the environment, product / service and other quality matters, and/or the security of the site / organization.
  • Emergency needs assessment – The process of recognizing and evaluating potential emergencies that could occur in an organization. Used as the basis for developing a comprehensive emergency response plan.
  • Emergency plan – A comprehensive document to provide guidance on actions to be taken under various possible emergency conditions. Includes responsibilities of individuals / departments, resources available for use, sources of aid outside the organization, procedures to follow, authority to make decisions, requirements for implementing procedures within departments, training in and practice of emergency procedures, communications, and reports required.
  • Emergency team – A group of employees who act as a unit in some or all types of emergencies.
  • EMS coordinator / Management Representative – A person, reporting to upper management, one of whose functions is to measure and evaluate the environmental management system effectiveness. The coordinator also advises and assists on matters relating to the environmental management system.
  • Environment – Surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans, and their interrelation.
  • Environmental accident – An unintended event that results in loss to the environment above an acceptable level / threshold limit.
  • Environmental aspect – Element of an organization’s activities, products, and/or services which can interact with the environment. Environmental aspects can have both positive and negative consequences or impacts.
  • Environmental effect – Any direct or indirect impingement of the activities, products, and/or services of the organization upon the environment, whether adverse (negative) or beneficial (positive).
  • Environmental hazard – An operating condition that may result in an environmental incident or accident. A negative environmental aspect is the same as an environmental hazard.
  • Environmental incident – An unintended event which could or does result in a loss to the environment.
  • Environmental Management System (EMS) – That part of the overall management system which includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes, and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing, and maintaining the environmental policy. It is integrated into the overall HSE MS.
  • Environmental objective – Overall environmental goal, arising from the environmental policy, that an organization sets itself to achieve, and which is quantified where practicable.
  • Environmental performance – Measurable results of the environmental management system, related to an organization’s control of its environmental aspects, based on its environmental policy, objectives, and targets.
  • Environmental management program – A description of the means of achieving environmental objectives and targets.
  • Environmental target – Detailed performance requirement, quantified where practicable, applicable to the organization or parts thereof, that arises from the environmental objectives and that needs to be set and met in order to achieve those objectives.
  • EPZ – Emergency Planning Zone.
  • Ergonomic Risk Factor Analysis – Formally reviewing and documenting the presence and severity of ergonomic risk factors in a job process.
  • Ergonomic Risk Factors – Forceful exertions, awkward postures, repetitive motions, duration, vibrations, contact stress.
  • ERP – Emergency Response Plan.
  • Established – A routine or procedure that is valid, recognized, and accepted on a permanent basis.
  • Event – Something that occurs in a certain place during a particular interval of time (and after a hazard is released).
  • Event Tree Analysis (ETA) – Works in the opposite direction to FTA. ETA takes an event and predicts an outcome.  Event Tree Analysis uses inductive reasoning / logic.
  • Evidence – Information (from documents, records or any other source) given to establish fact.
  • Exposure hours – Exposure Hours represent the total number of hours of employment for work, including overtime and training but excluding leave, sickness, and/or other absences.
  • External parties, environmental – Those with an interest in the environmental effects of an organization’s activities, products and services (e.g., government agencies; local residents; the organization’s investors; insurers; customers and consumers; environmental interest groups; and the general public).


  • FAFirst Aid
  • FAT – Fatality
  • Failure costs, external – The costs arising outside the manufacturing organization of the failure to achieve quality specified.
  • Failure costs, internal – The costs arising within the manufacturing organization of the failure to achieve quality specified. The term can include the cost of scrap, rework and re-inspection, and also consequential losses within the organization.
  • Failure Mode Analysis (FMA) – A procedure to determine which malfunction symptoms appear immediately before or after a failure of a critical parameter in a system. After all the possible causes are listed for each symptom, the product is designed to eliminate the problems.
  • Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) – A procedure in which each potential failure mode in every sub-item of an item is analyzed to determine its effect on other sub-items and on the required function on the item.
  • Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) – A procedure that is performed after a failure mode effects analysis to classify each potential failure effect according to its severity and probability of occurrence.
  • Fatality – A fatality is a classification of a death resulting from a Work Injury, or Occupational Illness, regardless of the time intervening between injury / illness and death.
  • Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) – A procedure / graphical technique that provides a systematic description of the combinations of possible occurrences in a system, which can result in an undesirable outcome. This technique can combine both hardware and human failures.  Often, while a hazardous event has not occurred before, the preconditions and underlying causes and failures have.  It is therefore possible to synthesize a top event or the undesirable outcome.  This technique is one of the most powerful used to examine how failure events can occur    following a sequence of other faults.  Fault Tree Analysis uses deductive reasoning / logic.
  • FERM – Fire and Explosion Risk Management.
  • FIFO – First In, First Out. First goods produced or received should be picked first.  Used in purchasing / procurement and inventory control.
  • First-aid injury – A minor injury requiring only first-aid treatment, normally given by someone other than a physician.
  • First / Front – line management – Those who directly supervise most of the non-managerial employees. Typical titles include: foreman, supervisor, unit supervisor.
  • Formal – External form or structure. Delivered according to fixed customs or rules in an orderly fashion: methodical, definite, and explicit.
  • Formal Evaluation – A documented review of program progress against performance requirements and goals, including recommendations for future improvements and activities.
  • Functional responsibilities – Ensuring an efficient and coordinated effort from the various operational divisions of the company (marketing, production, etc.) through appropriate management and organizational structures and management control and reward systems.


  • HAP – Heat Alert Program
  • HARC – Hazard Analysis and Risk Control
  • Hazard – A hazard is any source of potential damage, harm or adverse health effects on something or someone under certain conditions at work. Basically, a hazard can cause harm or adverse effects (to individuals as health effects or to organizations as property or equipment losses).
  • HAZOP – Hazard and Operability study, generally used when identifying hazards for equipment or installations at the design stage.
  • Heat Tolerance – The physiological ability to endure heat and regulate body temperature at an average or better rate than others, often affected by the individual’s level of acclimatization and physical conditioning.
  • Heat Syncope – Collapse and/or loss of consciousness during heat exposure without an increase in body temperature or cessation of sweating, similar to vasovagal fainting except that it is heat induced.
    A heat related condition where blood, which would normally be circulated to the heart and brain, tends to pool in the leg veins, thereby causing fainting. The veins lack tone when initially exposed to hot climates.
  • Heat Stroke – An acute medical emergency caused by exposure to heat from an excessive rise in body temperature [above 41.1°C (106°F] and failure of the temperature-regulating mechanism. Injury occurs to the central nervous system characterized by a sudden and sustained loss of consciousness preceded by vertigo, nausea, headache, cerebral dysfunction, bizarre behavior, and excessive body temperature.
    Heat stroke is caused by exactly the same conditions as heat exhaustion. It begins as heat exhaustion, but when the body’s system for losing heat is overwhelmed the core temperature rises rapidly and tissue damage occurs. This affects mainly the brain, kidneys and liver. The circulation collapses.
  • Heat Stress – The net heat load to which a worker is exposed from the combined contributions of metabolic heat, environmental factors, and clothing worn which results in an increase in heat storage in the body.
  • Heat Strain – The physiological response to the heat load (external or internal) experienced by a person, in which the body attempts to increase heat loss to the environment in order to maintain a stable body temperature.
  • Heat Exhaustion – A heat-related illness characterized by elevation of core body temperature above 38°C (100.4°F) and abnormal performance of one or more organ systems, without injury to the central nervous system. Heat exhaustion may signal impending heat stroke.
    Heat exhaustion is a progression from heat cramp and it is more severe condition. It is more likely in the dehydrated, unfit, the elderly and those who have high blood pressure. It is caused by both salt and water loss.
  • Heat Cramp – A heat-related illness characterized by spastic contractions of the voluntary muscles (mainly arms, hands, legs, and feet), usually associated with restricted salt intake and profuse sweating without significant body dehydration.
    Occurs after prolonged vigorous exercise especially in hot climates. There is a sudden onset of pain and cramps in the extremities. There may be nausea and hypotension and in some cases hyperventilation.
  • HEMP – Hazards and Effects Management Process. Used by Shell, PDO
  • Hyperthermia – A condition where the core temperature of an individual is higher than 37.2°C (99°F). Hyperthermia can be classified as mild (37.2–38.5°C; 99–101.3°F), moderate (i.e., heat exhaustion [38.5–39.5°C; 101.3–103.1°F]), profound (>39.5°C; 103.1°F), or profound clinical hyperthermia (i.e., heat stroke [>40.5°C; 104.9°F]), and death can occur without treatment (>45°C; 113°F).
  • HR – Heart Rate
  • Hyperpyrexia – A body core temperature exceeding 40°C (104°F).
  • Hazard – 1) The potential to harm to people and the environment, cause damage and/or loss of assets, and to adversely impact PDO’s reputation. It is also known as a condition, act, and/or practice with the potential for accidental loss.
  • Hazard classification – A designation of relative loss potential. A system to code substandard practices or conditions by the potential severity of the loss, should an accident or loss occur.
  • Hazards and effects register (Risk Registers) – A record that demonstrates that all hazards and effects have been identified, are understood, and are being properly controlled. This Register is kept current throughout the life cycle of a project or activity, i.e., from the planning and design stage, through operation, to decommissioning, abandonment, and disposal. The term HEMP is being replaced by the Risk Assessment Process.
  • HAZID – Hazard identification. A structured technique used to identify hazards.
  • HAZOP – Hazard and operability. The application of a formal systematic detailed examination of the process and engineering intention of new or existing facilities to assess the hazard potential of operation outside the design intention or malfunction of individual items of equipment and their consequential effects on the facility as a whole.  The HAZOP technique was “defined” in the Chemical Industries Association Code and updated more recently in the CCPS Hazard Identification Procedures.
  • High risk incident / high potential incident – Incident for which the combination of potential consequences and probability is assessed to be in the high risk – red shaded area – of the Risk Assessment Matrix.
  • HSE – Health, Safety, and Environment.
  • HSE Case – A demonstration of how the Company manages “high” HSE risks to a level that is ALARP.
  • HSE Critical Activity – Any activity that is undertaken to provide or maintain controls for RAM 3+ consequences.
  • HSE Critical Roles – Includes any job description with accountabilities and/or responsibilities for conducting HSE Critical Activities.
  • HSE-MS – Health, Safety, and Environment Management System.
  • Human resources management – The branch of management concerned with administering the employment relationship and with achieving effective use of human resources available in the organization.


  • IADC – International Association of Drilling Contrcators;
  • IOSHInstitution of Occupational Safety and Health
  • IOGP – Internal Association of Oil & Gas Producers
  • IRCA – International Register of Certificated Auditors
  • ISM alias ISM Code – International Safety Management (ISM) Code is an international standard for the safe operation of ships and for pollution prevention. Chapter IX of the International Convention for the SOLAS requires compliance with the ISM Code.
  • ISO – International Organization for Standardization
  • Immediate causes – The substandard acts / practices and/or conditions which directly contribute to the occurrence of an accident / incident. Frequently referred to as unsafe acts or conditions, or direct causes.
  • Impact – An adverse impact on people, the environment or PDO’s reputation; damage and/or loss of assets.
  • Incident – 1) An incident is an unplanned and undesired event or chain of events that has, or could have, resulted in injury or illness, damage to assets, the environment, company reputation, and/or consequential business loss. It includes the release or near release of a hazard, which exceeds a defined limit or threshold limit value.
  • Induction – See orientation.
  • Information management – The process of gathering, processing and interpreting data both from the firm’s external environment and from inside the firm, generally using the information technology provided by computers.
  • Inherent (“gross”) risk – is an assessment without any responses being applied and assuming no controls are in place (or failure of existing ones).
  • Injury frequency rate – A lagging indicator and an injury experience measurement. An injury frequency rate may also be referred to as a lost-time frequency rate. Local jurisdictional standards should be consulted.
  • Injury severity rate – A lagging indicator and a severity of injury measurement. Local jurisdictional standards should be consulted.
  • Inspection – A scheduled, structured examination of a work site with a specific focus on physical conditions and working acts and/or practices, in addition to normal supervisory duties. (A type of monitoring).
  • Interested Parties (stakeholders) – People or organizations with an interest in the organization’s activities, products, and/or services. This can include government regulators and inspectors, investors, insurance companies, employees, the local community, customers and consumers, NGO’s, environmental groups, and the general public.
  • ISO – International Organization for Standardization – ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the world’s largest developer and publisher of International Standards. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 163 countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system.
  • ISO 14001 2015: Environmental Management System
  • ISO 45001 2017: Occupational Health and Safety System


  • JMR – Journey Management Rate. Total number of kilometers driven per man-hour worked.
  • Joint safety and health committee – A committee consisting of non-supervisory and supervisory representatives appointed to consider safety and health matters.


  • Light Duty – Any work performed by a person that does not include all the normal duties of the regular job;
  • LEL – Lower Explosive Limit;
  • Loss – The negative consequence or cost of an accident. Includes all direct and indirect costs irrespective of insurance compensations;
  • LOTO – Lock Out Tag Out (i.e. power source disconnection and locking);
  • LPT – Loss Prevention Team;
  • LTI Lost Time Incident;
  • LTIF – Lost Time Incident Frequency (used by AIDC). Number of LTI’s per million of manhours worked. It is calculated as follows: No. of LTI’s x 1,000,000 / Manhours;
  • LTISR – Lost Time Incident Severity Rate (used by AIDC). Number of days lost per million of manhours worked. It is calculated as follows: No. of days lots x 1,000,000 / Manhours;
  • Lagging indicators – Measurements of consequence or results and which are reactive measures.
  • Leading indicators – Measurements of inputs to a process. Answers the question, “How well are we doing our work?”  It is a proactive measure.
  • Leadership – 1) Leadership is the collective function of all leaders and is the process wherein a leader engages with and mobilizes others to drive change in an organization.  It is the process of influencing others to achieve certain goals.
  • Lesson plan – A document which provides guidance to a course instructor regarding the proper presentation of a subject. Lesson plans usually include learner objectives, educational approaches to be used, materials and learning aids to be used, outlines of the presentations and time to be spent in teaching the subjects.
  • Letter of Assurance (LOA) – The LOA is a confirmation from a contractor CEO, with or without qualifications, that the current implementation status and integrity of the Contractor’s HSE management system meets the Contract requirements. Each Contractor is required to submit one LOA only to cover all contracts with the Company that are operational on 1 January of that year.  In making their appraisal of whether or not a statement can be made without qualification, Contractor CEOs should consider how an auditor would rate compliance with the statement concerned.  Statements should be qualified if a significant audit finding would be expected.  An audit trail should exist to confirm the basis on which all statements have been made.
  • Life cycle, product – Term relating to a generally accepted hypothesis that all products are subject to a pattern of demand which, after its start, grows, stabilizes for a period, then tends to decline and finally disappear. The life cycle contention is that all products have both a beginning and an end.  This dictates the need for new product development; the order of time frame determines the intensity with which such development takes place.
  • LIFO – Last In, First Out. Last goods produced or received should be picked first.  Used in purchasing / procurement and inventory control.
  • Likelihood – The expectation, possibility, and/or chance of an event happening. Usually expressed as a frequency (i.e. once every 10 years), but sometimes as a probability (i.e. 0.2, 40% etc.).
  • Lock-out – A practice for preventing the undesired operation of equipment or power systems by the affixing of a device with a lock which prevents anyone from turning on the power or energy source.
  • Logistics – The science and practice of estimating the likely flows and timings of company resources for any particular project or campaign and providing the means to achieve them.
  • Loss – The avoidable waste of any resource, such as people, equipment, materials, and/or the environment.
  • Loss control – Activities to reduce accidental losses to an organization. These losses may include injuries, occupational illnesses, property damage, process losses, down-time, quality degradation, environmental impacts, etc.  These activities include anything done to prevent or minimize the risk of loss exposures, reduce losses when loss-producing events occur, and/or terminate or avoid risks.
  • LTI – Lost Time Injuries are the sum of Fatalities, Permanent Total Disabilities, and Lost Workday Cases. B. If, in a single Incident 20 people receive lost time injuries, then it is accounted for corporate reporting purposes as 20 LTI’s (not 1 LTI).
  • LTIF – The Lost Time Injury Frequency is the number of Lost Time Injuries per million man-hours worked during the period.
  • Major hazard – Any hazard giving rise to “high” HSE risks.


  • MAHRA – alias MHRA –  Major Accident Hazard Risk Assessment. Used by TransOcean. The Major Hazard Risk Assessment (“MAHRA” or “MHRA”) describes how TransOcean risk assesses and manages the major hazards that have the potential to affect its operations. It is a structured process that helps to categorize and characterize potential major hazards. A MHRA also provides an explanation of the Bowtie Barrier Analysis methodology used in the Major Hazard Risk Assessment.
  • Manhours – Total number of hours worked by the Company personnel, including overtime and training, but excluding travel time, leave, rest, sickness, and other absences.
  • MIC – Man In Charge = PIC;
  • MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheet;
  • MSHA – Mine Safety and Health Administration;
  • MTCMedical Treatment Case
  • MVI – Motor Vehicle Incident
  • Major injury / illness – Injury or illness resulting in at least a temporary disability (disabling injury).
  • Major property damage rate – The degree of economic loss determined by the organization to be significant enough to require the same management attention normally given a disabling or lost-time injury.
  • Management – The process of organizing and directing human and physical resources within an organization to meet defined objectives. Key management functions and roles are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
  • Management audits – Comprehensive audits of managers’ compliance with clearly defined criteria, conducted by managers of comparable levels and experience.
  • Management system – The part of the overall management system that includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes, and resources for developing, implementing, achieving, reviewing, and maintaining the (environmental) policy. It is a framework of controls for managing organizational risks and driving continual improvement.
  • Manual – A document that links the policy with all related codes of practice, procedures, specifications, work instructions, and/or guidelines for performing a business activity.
  • Manual of Permitted Operations (MOPO) – Defines the limit of safe operation permitted for a particular asset if control and or mitigation measures are reduced and/or removed, yet maintaining a tolerable level or risk. It considers combinations of hazards and hazardous events.
  • Materials handling – The physical movement of materials from place to place, their and storage as they proceed through various production, warehousing, and distribution processes.
  • Medical Case Management Representative – Individual contracted or employed by PDO to manage: injury costs (worker compensation), absences, return to work placements, and/or employee health care programs.
  • Medium and low risk incident – Incident for which the combination of potential consequences and probability is assessed to be in the yellow or blue shaded area of the Risk Assessment Matrix.
  • Middle management – Those between the senior managers and first-line supervisors. Titles typically relate to department head or general supervisory personnel.
  • Mission statement – An explicit written statement for the reason an organization exists, the social needs it fulfils, and its fundamental business focus. Mission statements are designed to give substance to the perceived purposes of the organization and provide all employees with an indication of what they are attempting to achieve through their collective endeavor (related terms: policy statement, organization statement).
  • Mitigation measures – To reduce or limit the number and severity of the consequences arising from a hazardous event or effect.
  • Monitoring – To oversee, supervise, or regulate for purposes of control, checking continually, and/or keeping track of. Monitoring here may include using specialized equipment, human observation, and/or a combination of both.
  • MOPO – See “Manual of Permitted Operations.”
  • Mutual aid agreements – Formal agreements with local, private organizations to provide resources in the event of an emergency.


  • Near Accident – see ‘Near Miss’
  • Near Miss – An incident that could have caused illness, injury or damage to assets, the environment or company reputation, or consequential business loss, but did not. All near misses shall be treated as incidents and shall be investigated and reported according to their potential risk.
  • NIOSH – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  • NEBOSHNational Examination Board in Occupational Safety and Health
  • Non-compliance – Failure to meet the HSE Management System requirements. Non-compliance may be identified by monitoring activities, adverse trends in performance indicators, non-completion of HSE Plans, failure to meet targets, incident investigations, and/or audits / assessments.
  • Nonconformity – Deviation from the specified situation or the non-fulfillment of specified requirements.
  • NORM – Naturally occurring radioactive material.


  • Occupational Illness – Any work related illness resulting in days away from work, days of restricted work activity, job transfer, medical treatment or abnormal health condition. The basic difference between injury and illness is the single event concept. If the damage resulted from something that happened in one instant, it is an injury. If it resulted from prolonged or multiple exposure to a hazardous substance or environmental factor, it is an illness.
  • OSHA – Occupational Safety and Health Administration (US)
  • ORS – Oral Rehydration Solution
  • OPAL – Oman Society for Petroleum Services
  • Objective – A statement about where the company wants to be in regard to HSE issues, sometime in the future.
  • Objective setting – Determining the general goals, i.e., increasing the rate of return on capital employed, increasing earnings per share, etc. (synonym: goal setting).
  • Observation – Seeing with sufficient care to be able to give an account of conditions and behavior.
  • Occupation – A position title covering all work activities that a person performs while holding that title.
  • Occupational illness – Any abnormal condition or disorder of an employee, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment. It includes any illness that results from a work accident or from an exposure involving a single incident in the work environment.
  • Occupational safety – The control of personal injury, illness, and property damage in work-related environments and situations.
  • Off-site emergency – An emergency occurring outside the boundaries or direct control of an organization, but that affects or has the potential to affect the organization’s stakeholders.
  • Off-the-job safety – The control of exposures to hazards outside the workplace environment.
  • OI – Operating Integrity.
  • Opportunity – A possible action with the potential to produce an event with positive consequences. It includes those factors, which could influence the achievement of business objectives having a potential positive consequence.
  • Organization – Any organized body or establishment, such as a business, company, government, department, charity, and/or society
  • Orientation – Commonly divided into three types:
    (1) General Orientation. A pre-assignment presentation to employees on the major points of the organization’s policies, benefits, services, facilities, general rules and practices, and work environment
    (2) Job Orientation. An orientation that is specific in nature and designed to orient the employee to the specific information necessary to prepare him or her for the specific job
    (3) Leadership Orientation. An orientation that is HSE specific in nature and designed to orient a manager / leader to the specific HSE management system information necessary to prepare him or her for the specific job.


  • Permanent Partial Disability – Any injury which results in the complete loss, or permanent loss of use, of any part of the body, or any impairment of functions of parts of the body. The number of days lost is based upon the ANSI (American National Standard Institute) tables and not upon the number of days of non-fitness. See charges here
  • PIC – Person in Charge
  • PPE – Personal Protective Equipment
  • PPM – Part Per Million (PPM) – Concentration of a gas or liquid, in volume per million of volumes. One ppm is equal to 0.0001 % concentration;
  • Pareto principle – See Critical / vital few.
  • Partial task observation – A planned observation of a segment or part of a task that includes the noting and recording of facts and events relating to the observation.
  • Performance – A measure of attainment achieved by an individual, team, organization, and/ or process.
  • Performance indicators (KPI) – A proxy measure of organizational performance thought to improve managerial decision making concerning resource allocation.
  • Performance standard – A performance standard typically imposes quantifiable limits and targets, such as “how much gas can be released into the air.”
  • Physical capability analysis – A systematic analysis of jobs or tasks to determine size, strength, endurance, acclimatization, and other similar physical aspects needed to perform a job or task safely and effectively.
  • Plan – A document describing what procedures and/or other associated documents and resources shall be applied by whom and when / how often to a specific project, process, activity, and/or contract.
  • Planned general inspection – A general inspection of the overall workplace that is planned in advance. Planned inspections are usually done at an established frequency and by properly trained operating personnel.
  • Planned personal contacts – An intentional daily / weekly meeting of a manager and an employee to discuss a critical HSE and/or production topic related to that employee’s work.
  • Planning, business – A method of controlling the business that involves the setting of long-term objectives and the formulation of action programs designed to achieve those objectives.
  • PM – Planned Maintenance.
  • Policy, business – The strategies and measures adopted by the organization to manage the business as a means of achieving its organization objectives. It is a concise statement of the companies  attitude on a particular subject in response to business needs.  It guides administration, reflects management’s attitudes and commitment to safety and health, and defines the authority and respective relationships required to accomplish the organization’s objectives.
  • Practice(s) – General methods or guidelines to follow when performing a task that does not have to be performed identically each time it is done.
  • Pre-placement physical examination – A medical examination prior to job placement to determine suitability for work.
  • Preventive action – Any action taken to investigate, prevent, and/or reduce defects, failures, and other causes of loss.
  • Prevention measures – To reduce the likelihood / probability of hazards or to prevent or avoid the release of a hazard.
  • Primary processes – The chain of activities which add value to the product, activity, and/or service (i.e., marketing, design and development, production, distribution, after-sales service).
  • Probability – See Likelihood.
  • Procedure – A document that specifies the way a work process / activity / task is to be performed, describing why (purpose), what (scope), who (responsibility), when (frequency), how (tasks involved), and how many / how much (specifications). The HSE MS has replaced these with process flow diagrams which reflect the key requirements which enable an activity to be delivered correctly.
  • Process – A sequence of activities that adds value by producing required outputs from a variety of inputs.
  • Process hazard – The intrinsic property of a dangerous substance or physical situation with the potential to cause major accidental loss.
  • Process monitoring and control – Checking performance of the process at regular intervals in relation to pre-established norms, including taking corrective action where necessary.
  • Process safety – The control of process hazards with the potential to cause major accidental loss.
  • Product stewardship – The responsible and ethical management of the health, safety, and environmental aspects of a product from its invention through its processes of production to its ultimate use and beyond.
  • Production – The conversion process for transforming inputs such as materials, labor, and capital into goods and services.
  • Production scheduling – The detailed planning of production to achieve production targets within specified timetables and avoid production delays, while making effective use of labor resources and ensuring high rates of machine utilization.
  • Program – A description of the means of achieving objectives and targets.
  • Project – A project is a temporary and one-time endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.
  • PS – Performance Standard.
  • PSM – Process Safety Management.
  • PSUA – Pre Start Up Audit.
  • PTW – Permit to Work.


  • QRA – Quantitative Risk Assessment.
  • Qualified / approved suppliers – A group of suppliers or subcontractors who fulfill the approval criteria for purchasing products or services.
  • Quality – The degree to which the perceived situation meets the expected situation. The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that determine its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.
  • Quality assurance – All planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality.
  • Quality control – The operational techniques and activities used to fulfill requirements for quality.
  • Quality management – That aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy.
  • Quality system – The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management.


  • RCDResidual Current Device
  • RH – Relative Humidity
  • Residual Risk – The risk remaining after prevention and mitigation measures actions have been implemented.
  • RIDDOR – Reporting of Injuries, Diseases & Dangerous Occurrences Regulations
  • Risk – In the context of HSE, risk is defined as a measure of the probability (Likelihood) for an Incident to happen and of the potential severity of the consequences. (Severity). Likelihood x Severity = Risk
  • Risk Identification Rate
    1. Total number of Accidents, Near Accidents or hazardous situations reported per employee per year. Calculated as follows: for Month: RIR = Number of reports in month x 12 / Month-end headcount ; for Year to Date: RIR = Number of reports YTD x 12 / YTD average headcount x Number of months YTD;
    2. Number of potential risks ( STOP cards, potential accident reports ) identified per employee per year, RIR / Employee / Year;
  • RPE – Respiratory protective equipment
  • RTA – Road Traffic Accident
  • RTAF – Road Traffic Accident Frequency
  • RWC – Restricted Work Case
  • RWTCRestricted Work/Transfer Case (RWTC)
  • RAM – Risk Assessment Matrix.
  • Random sampling – A method for selecting units to be examined or population to be interviewed in an audit which gives every unit of the same type equal chance of being selected for inclusion in a sample that is statistically valid. Sample size(s) can be adjusted for desired accuracy and confidence levels.
  • RASCI Chart – A RASCI chart is a tool for describing “who does what and when / how often.” R = Responsible, A = Accountable, S = Supportive, C = Consulted, and I = Informed.  The key responsibilities are reflected directly in the process flow diagrams as each activity defines who is to do the work.
  • Record – A document containing information with respect to results achieved and/or providing evidence of activities performed. (A record is an “output” document and it typically cannot be revised or altered.).
  • Recovery measures – Those measures aimed at reinstating or returning the situation to normal operating conditions.
  • Regulation – A rule or ordinance, law, and/or device by which people, equipment, materials, and/or the environment are controlled by an external agency or organization.
  • Residual (“net”) risk – an assessment of the risk taking the quality and effectiveness of the controls in place and after responses have been applied. The potential difference between inherent and residual risk gives an indication of the quality and effectiveness of the controls in place.
  • Resource, general – Anything used to produce goods or services.
  • Responsibility – The obligation to carry out specified duties and tasks (e.g., someone who has responsibility for “X” in an organization is obliged to carry them out, or to ensure that others do so).
  • Review, system / management system – A formal evaluation by upper management of the status and adequacy of a system in relation to policy and new objectives resulting from changing circumstances.
  • Risk – The frequency of occurrence (likelihood) of an undesired event, and the severity of the consequences (effects) of that event. ISO 31000: 2009 defines it as “effect of uncertainty on objectives”.
  • Risk acceptance – A set of criteria defining the limits above which risks cannot be tolerated.
  • Risk analysis – The quantitative or qualitative process to assess the likelihood and potential consequences of a possible event.
  • Risk appetite – The positive benefits of exploiting a business opportunity associated with the risks.
  • Risk assessment – Any process used to identify, quantify, or rank risks. It includes the total process of risk analysis, interpretation of results, and recommendations of corrective action.
  • Risk competence – An individual’s risk perception, risk acceptance, and knowledge and commitment to norms in order to be able to correctly identify, evaluate, and control the risks they are exposed to.
  • Risk evaluation – The process by which risk information is considered against judgment and standards, to ensure that the controls in place are adequate to reduce risks to an acceptable level.
  • Risk exposure – The amount of risk taken.
  • Risk management – A process that is used to ensure that all significant risks are identified, evaluated, prioritized, managed (controlled), and monitored effectively.
  • Risk management system – A structured approach used by organizations to co-ordinate risk management related activities and drive continual improvement.
  • Risk matrix – A tool for conducting qualitative risk assessment, which characterizes risks based on their likelihood and consequences.
  • Risk measures – Measures that effect affect the likelihood and/or the consequences of events.
  • Risk register – A catalogue / inventory of risk information.
  • Routine – Regular course of action, unvarying performance of certain acts.
  • Rule – A prescribed guide for conduct or action.


  • SCBA – Self Contained Breathing Apparatus;
  • SIMOPS – Simultenaous Operations;
  • Slip-and-Cut -To replace the drilling line wrapped around the crown block and traveling block. As a precaution against drilling line failure due to fatigue, the work done by the drilling line is closely monitored and limited. The work is commonly measured as the cumulative product of the load lifted (in tons) and the distance lifted or lowered (in miles). After a predetermined limit of ton-miles, new line is unspooled from the storage reel and slipped through the crown block and traveling block sheaves and drawworks spool, with the excess on the drawworks spool end cut off and discarded.
  • SOLASSafety of Life at Sea;
  • SRL – Self Retracting Lifeline;
  • SWL – Safe Working Load;
  • SWP – Safe Working Practices; Safe Working Procedures
  • Safety – Control of accidental loss.
  • Satisfaction measurement – To measure the satisfaction of customers with a product or service via interviews or other techniques.
  • Senior management – Group of managers who have a substantial role in formulating the objectives and policies of the organization
  • Senior manager – The most senior decision-making person at a location.
  • Service department – Part of an organization concerned with providing after sales service to customers.
  • Service Level Agreement – Service Level Agreements specify the nature, scope, and flexibility of essential services to be provided by Service Asset Managers to Product Flow Asset Managers. They also specify quality of a service, how it is measured, on what terms payment is made, deliverables, and responsibilities (including management of HSE risks).
  • Severity – A measure of the level of harm or damage that the accident could cause. Also known as consequence, impact, or hazard effect.  Severity is often expressed as the level of injury or the financial costs of damage.
  • Significant incident – Incident with actual consequences rating of 4 or 5 on the Risk Assessment Matrix.
  • SIL – Safety Instrumented Level.
  • SIMOPS – Simultaneous Operations.
  • Simple risk assessment – The process of asking one’s self a brief, simple series of questions relating to a specific task that enables more effective risk recognition, evaluation, and control.
  • Skill development coaching – The actions taken to help employees perform as well as possible through techniques such as performance reviews, discussions, etc. Includes actions taken on a day-to-day basis, designed to motivate an employee to improve his or her skills.
  • Specification – The specific requirements that are mandatory – with respect to performance, implementation, monitoring, and/or reporting. A specification can apply to materials, products, activities, and/or services.
  • Stakeholders – See “Interested parties.” Those groups who affect and/or are affected by the organization and its activities.  These may include, but are not limited to: owners, trustees, employees, associations, trade unions, customers, members, partners, suppliers, competitors, government, regulators, the electorate, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) / not-for-profit organizations, pressure groups and influencers, and/or communities.
  • Standard – A standard represents agreement on best practice for the technology or process concerned. ISO 14001 is an international standard that represents worldwide agreement on best practices for environmental management.  This is NOT a (technical) performance standard.
  • Standards, performance – The defined criterion for effective performance of work or activities. Performance standards should define who is responsible for performing what work when or how often.
  • Standards, ISO-9000, ISO 14000 and ISO 45001 series – A set of individual but related international guidelines on quality, environmental and occupational health and safety management developed to help companies effectively document activities to be implemented to maintain an efficient management system. The standards are developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), an international agency composed of the national standards bodies of 90+ countries.  (See ISO).
  • Strategy – The formulation of a unified body of strategic plans by a firm in order to achieve its business objectives. Business strategy integrates all aspects of a firm’s production activities through all levels, including:
    • Objective or goal setting,
    • Strategic direction,
    • Choice of growth mode,
    • Competitive strategy,
    • Functional responsibilities.
  • Structured – The pattern of roles and relationships in a group or organization.
  • Subcontracting – Arrangement by which a person or a firm, based on a legal contract, supplies goods and/or services to another person or firm.
  • Subcontractor – Person or company that does work under a contract with the contractor.
  • Substandard acts and substandard conditions – Acts or conditions that do not meet established standards; frequently referred to as unsafe acts or conditions.
  • Survey – A systematic study to identify and assess a defined issue or condition.
  • System – An established way of carrying out an activity or series of activities, including the identification, training, and involvement of individuals responsible for the activity; a clear definition of the activity and how to do it; and a mechanism to ensure that the activity is performed as expected.


  • Thermal Stress – The sum of the environmental and metabolic heat load imposed on the individual
  • Thermal Strain – The sum of physiologic responses of the individual to thermal stress.
  • Thermal Insulation, Effective – The insulation value of the clothing plus the still air layer.
  • Thermal Insulation, Clothing – The insulation value of a clothing ensemble.
  • TLV – Threshold Limit Value
  • Total Heat Load – The total heat exposure of environmental plus metabolic heat.
  • TRC – Total Reportable Cases or Total Recordable Cases. Sum of Fatalities, Permanent Total Disabilities, Permanent Partial Disabilities, Lost Workday Cases, Restricted Work Cases and Medical Treatment Cases.
  • TRCF – Total Reportable Case Frequency. Number of Total Reportable Cases per million Exposure Hours worked during the period.
  • TROIF – Total Reportable Occupational Illness Frequency. Sum of all occupational illnesses whether or not they have resulted in deaths, permanent total disabilities, permanent partial disabilities, lost workday cases, or restricted workday cases per million working hours during the reporting period.
  • TWL – The Thermal Work Limit (TWL) is the heat stress index which is used to enable management of safe work in heat. It is defined as the limiting (or maximum) sustainable metabolic rate that well-hydrated, individuals can maintain in a specific thermal environment.
  • TA – Technical Authority.
  • Target – A specific endpoint, usually either stating the date of completion of particular actions needed to achieve the objectives and/or achieving specified quantitative performance measures.
  • Task – A specific work assignment within an occupation, consisting of a definite sequence of steps.
  • Task analysis – A systematic analysis of the steps involved in doing a task, the loss exposures involved and the controls necessary to prevent loss. It is a prerequisite to the development of job / task procedures and practices.
  • Task instruction – The process of transferring the knowledge and skills necessary to properly perform a job / task.
  • Task observation – Task observation is a technique to ensure that tasks / procedures are performed efficiently and in compliance with standards.
  • Technical Integrity – An asset should be procured, designed, constructed, commissioned, operated, and maintained so that it is suitable for its required purpose, considering structural integrity, process containment, ignition control and systems for protection, detection, shutdown, emergency response, and life saving.
  • Tender – Offer to supply goods or services at a price; usually a detailed document outlining all the conditions which would relate to any ensuing contract
  • Threat – A possible cause that will potentially release a hazard and produce an event.
  • Top Event – The ‘release’ of a hazard; something that occurs in a certain place during a particular interval of time.
  • Top Management – The most senior management members at the site, typically a Director, service manager, and/or other operations managers.
  • TRC – Total Reportable Cases are the sum of Fatalities, Permanent Total Disabilities, Permanent Partial Disabilities, Lost Workday Cases, Restricted Work Cases, and Medical Treatment Cases. This is sometimes referred to as Total Recordable Cases.
  • TRCF – The Total Reportable Case Frequency is the number of Total Reportable Cases per million Exposure Hours worked during the period.
  • Trend Analysis – A process by which data is analyzed to determine underlying contributing factors.
  • TROIF – The Total Reportable Occupational Illness Frequency is the sum of all occupational illnesses whether or not they have resulted in deaths, permanent total disabilities, permanent partial disabilities, lost workday cases, and/or restricted workday cases per million working hours during the reporting period.


  • UEL – Upper Explosive Limit
  • Upstream – The upstream part of Petroleum industry finds and produces crude oil and natural gas. The upstream is sometimes known as the exploration and production (E&P) sector.


  • VIAR – Vehicle Injury Accident Rate. Number of company and (sub) contractor employees who sustained an injury as a consequence of road traffic accidents per 100 million km driven.
  • VOC – Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Values – The understandings and expectations that describe how the organization’s people behave and upon which all business relationships are based (e.g. trust, support, and truth).
  • Vision – A statement that describes how the organization wishes to be or become in the future.


  • WHO – World Health Organization
  • WBGT – Wet Bulb Globe Temperature
  • Work Instruction – A document that specifies in a step-by-step manner how a task or a set of tasks is to be performed. The company has replaced procedures and work instructions with simplified process flow diagrams.Work-related – Work related activities are defined as those activities for which management controls are in place, or should have been in place.Work Restrictions – Clear definitions of the physical activities an employee may perform while recovering from an injury or illness.